A 34-year-old Hispanic-American male with end-stage renal disease received kidney transplant from a cadaver donor, as no one in his family was a good match. His post-operative course was uneventful, a Nursing Assignment Help

A 34-year-old Hispanic-American male with end-stage renal disease received kidney transplant from a cadaver donor, as no one in his family was a good match. His post-operative course was uneventful, and he was discharged with the antirejection drugs Tacrolimus (Prograf), Cyclosporine (Neoral), and Imuran (Azathioprine). He did well for 3 months and had returned to his job as a policeman. Six months after his transplant, he began to gain weight, had decreased urine output, was very fatigued, and began to run temperatures up to 101˚F. He was evaluated by his nephrologist, who diagnosed acute kidney transplant rejection.

Develop a 1- to 2-page case study analysis in which you:

  • Explain why you think the patient presented the symptoms described.
  • Identify the genes that may be associated with the development of the disease.
  • Explain the process of immunosuppression and the effect it has on body systems.

Expert Solution Preview


This case study analysis will focus on a 34-year-old Hispanic-American male who underwent a kidney transplant due to end-stage renal disease. Following the transplantation, the patient experienced a period of uneventful recovery but developed symptoms indicative of acute kidney transplant rejection six months later. The analysis will explore the potential reasons for these symptoms, the genes associated with the disease, and the impact of immunosuppression on the body systems.

1. Explanation of the Patient’s Symptoms:

The patient’s symptoms of weight gain, decreased urine output, fatigue, and elevated temperature can be attributed to acute kidney transplant rejection. Rejection occurs when the recipient’s immune system recognizes the transplanted organ as foreign and mounts an immune response against it.

During acute rejection, immune cells infiltrate the transplanted kidney and cause inflammation. This inflammatory response disrupts the normal functioning of the kidney, resulting in decreased urine output. Additionally, inflammation and tissue damage can lead to fluid retention, causing weight gain.

The systemic effects of inflammation, along with the physical and emotional stress of rejection, can contribute to the patient’s fatigue. The presence of fever suggests an ongoing immune response and inflammation in the transplanted kidney.

2. Genes Associated with the Development of the Disease:

Several genes have been identified as potential contributors to the development of acute kidney transplant rejection. Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genes play a crucial role in the recognition of self and non-self antigens by the immune system. HLA genes help determine the compatibility between the donor and recipient, as a closer match reduces the risk of rejection.

Polymorphisms in specific HLA genes, such as HLA-DR and HLA-DQ, have been associated with an increased risk of acute rejection. These polymorphisms can affect the ability of the immune system to recognize transplanted tissue as self, leading to a heightened immune response.

3. Process of Immunosuppression and Its Effects on Body Systems:

Immunosuppression is an essential component of post-transplant management to prevent rejection. Medications such as Tacrolimus (Prograf), Cyclosporine (Neoral), and Imuran (Azathioprine) are commonly used for this purpose.

These medications target different aspects of the immune system to suppress its activity. Tacrolimus and Cyclosporine inhibit T-cell activation, an integral part of the immune response. By blocking T-cell activation, these drugs reduce the risk of rejection by dampening the immune response against the transplanted kidney.

Imuran (Azathioprine) is an immunosuppressant that interferes with DNA synthesis in rapidly dividing cells, including T and B lymphocytes. By inhibiting lymphocyte proliferation, Azathioprine minimizes the immune response.

While immunosuppression is vital for preventing rejection, it also weakens the overall immune system. This can increase the patient’s susceptibility to infections and result in adverse effects such as increased risk of malignancies, metabolic disturbances, and drug-related toxicities.


In conclusion, the presented case study illustrates a patient experiencing symptoms of acute kidney transplant rejection. The symptoms can be attributed to the immune response mounted by the patient against the transplanted kidney. Several genes, particularly HLA genes, may influence the development of acute rejection. Immunosuppression medication plays a crucial role in preventing rejection but also has systemic effects on the body, including increased susceptibility to infections and adverse drug reactions. Understanding the underlying mechanisms and genetic factors of transplant rejection aids in the management and personalized care of patients undergoing organ transplantation.

Share This Post


Order a Similar Paper and get 15% Discount on your First Order

Related Questions

Technology for Patient Safety in Saudi Arabia Paper Nursing Assignment Help

You are the manager of a busy hospital unit.  Your unit has been tasked with selecting and implementing upgraded technology on your hospital unit.  As the unit manger, address the following in your selection of technology and implementation plan: Examine the features of the new technology that are important in

WU Detail and Dynamic Complexity Discussion Nursing Assignment Help

Are you overwhelmed by complexity? If so, you are not alone. Peter Senge notes that people are now able to “create far more information that anyone can absorb,” and he continues to say that the “scale of complexity is without precedent” (2006, p. 69). This “detail” complexity can make managing

Pediatric Health & Medical Worksheet Nursing Assignment Help

Provider: i. Questions for HPI When did these symptoms begin? Is the child experience exercise intolerance? Any shortness of breath/signs of respiratory distress? History of genetic conditions? ii. Questions for ROS Poor feeding? Any newborn cardiac concerns? Previous cardiac history? Any pain, weakness, coldness to the extremities? Fluid retention? Cough

Health & Medical Capital Budgeting at Cleveland Clinic Nursing Assignment Help

Respond to each of the following prompts or questions: Using the information provided in the Los Reyes Hospital case study from Module Three, what capital expenditures may the selected departments need to budget? Considering the organization you selected, what is a capital expenditure that may be needed that would result

NVCC Service Implementation and Elements of Financial Nursing Assignment Help

Instructions: Part 1 1.Read Chapter 10, Capko. -Critique either Dr. Grainger’s or Mid-South Pulmomary Specialists efforts in developing  new services. -What lessons did you learn as related to new service development?   -List three main items which you must address before implementing a new service.  Instructions: Part 2 -The physicians

Healthcare is reimbursed in a variety of ways. The Nursing Assignment Help

Healthcare is reimbursed in a variety of ways. The prospective payment method is one of those ways. This paper will be about the prospective payment method where diagnosis-related groupings (DRGs) forms the basis for payment. Research and explain the origin, purpose, and description of DRGs. Include what payment is based on.

NUR 630 FIU Impact on Healthcare Systems and Public Health Nursing Assignment Help

Autism Spectrum Disorder, Intellectual Disabilities, or Childhood-Onset Schizophrenia In recent years, there have been reports linking autism to vaccinations. After studying Module 5: Lecture Materials & Resources, address the following in a well-written discussion post: Explain the controversy regarding vaccines as a possible cause of autism spectrum disorder. Does the