Please answer all the following questions . include the questions in the answers APA style, references, less than 20 % similarity. The textbook in ESENTIAL LEADERSHIP AND MANAGEMENT. 1-which of the fo Nursing Assignment Help

Please answer all the following questions . include the questions in the answers APA style, references, less than 20 % similarity. The textbook in ESENTIAL LEADERSHIP AND MANAGEMENT.

1-which of the following behaviors may be (1) ethical but illegal, (2) legal but unethical, (3) illegal and unethical, and (4) legal and ethical.

A. Working in a clinic that performs abortions

b. Respecting the wishes of a client suffering from ALS that he be permitted to die with dignity and not placed on “breathing machines”

c. Respecting the health surrogate’s wishes regarding termination of life support of her friend

d. Observing a coworker take out two tablets of oxycodone as ordered for pain management for his patient but keeping one for himself, administering only one tablet to the patient.

2-differentiate among the following: deontological theories, utilitarianism, and principlism.

3-what do you think about health-care professionals disclosing information to clients about a poor prognosis, even though the information may cause severe distress.

4-What do they think about health-care professionals disclosing information to clients against family wishes?

5. You see a colleague use another nurse’s password to access the medication administration system and take out a narcotic. What would you do?

6.Your colleague’s child fell and was brought to the emergency department. She comes back up to the unit and tells you that they cleaned and debrided the wound, and she needs to change the dressings twice a day using a wet to dry method. You see her go into the supply system and remove the dressings and saline using a patient’s identification number. What would you do?

7. You are caring for a patient who has a terminal disease. He asks you if he is dying. Would you tell him? If yes, how? If no, what might you say? .

8-You are administering hydromorphone to a patient. The patient asks you what you are administering. Would you tell the patient about the medication?

Expert Solution Preview

Introduction:

In the field of medical education, it is essential for medical college students to understand the ethical and legal aspects of their profession. As a medical professor, I design assignments and evaluate student performance to ensure they develop a comprehensive understanding of these principles. In this context, I will provide answers to the content provided, addressing each question separately.

1. Which of the following behaviors may be (1) ethical but illegal, (2) legal but unethical, (3) illegal and unethical, and (4) legal and ethical?

a. Working in a clinic that performs abortions
b. Respecting the wishes of a client suffering from ALS that they be permitted to die with dignity and not placed on “breathing machines”
c. Respecting the health surrogate’s wishes regarding termination of life support of her friend
d. Observing a coworker take out two tablets of oxycodone as ordered for pain management for his patient but keeping one for himself, administering only one tablet to the patient.

Answer:

a. Working in a clinic that performs abortions:
This behavior can be (4) legal and ethical, as the legality of performing abortions varies by jurisdiction, but medical professionals may ethically consider it as part of women’s reproductive rights and healthcare.

b. Respecting the wishes of a client suffering from ALS that they be permitted to die with dignity and not placed on “breathing machines”:
This behavior can be (4) legal and ethical. Medical professionals should respect their clients’ autonomous wishes and promote patient-centered care, which includes respecting end-of-life decisions.

c. Respecting the health surrogate’s wishes regarding termination of life support of her friend:
This behavior can be (4) legal and ethical. Health surrogate decisions are legally recognized in many jurisdictions, and respecting their wishes aligns with ethical principles of patient autonomy and beneficence.

d. Observing a coworker take out two tablets of oxycodone as ordered for pain management for his patient but keeping one for himself, administering only one tablet to the patient:
This behavior can be (3) illegal and unethical. The action of administering medication intended for a patient to oneself is both illegal and unethical, as it violates professional standards, patient trust, and principles of non-maleficence.

2. Differentiate among the following: deontological theories, utilitarianism, and principlism.

Answer:

Deontological theories: Deontological theories emphasize that actions are inherently right or wrong based on adherence to certain moral rules or duties. These theories focus on the motives and intentions behind actions rather than their outcomes. Examples include Kantian ethics and rights-based theories.

Utilitarianism: Utilitarianism is a consequentialist ethical theory that emphasizes maximizing overall happiness or utility for the greatest number of people. It considers the consequences of actions and seeks to maximize the net benefits or minimize the harms for all affected parties.

Principlism: Principlism is an ethical framework that combines elements of deontological and consequentialist theories. It proposes a set of primary ethical principles, such as autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence, and justice, which serve as guides for ethical decision-making in healthcare. Principlism encourages balancing these principles in a case-by-case manner.

3. What do you think about healthcare professionals disclosing information to clients about a poor prognosis, even though the information may cause severe distress?

Answer:

In medical practice, it is crucial for healthcare professionals to disclose information about a poor prognosis to their clients, even if it may cause severe distress. Honesty and transparency form the foundation of patient-centered care, respecting patient autonomy and allowing them to make informed decisions about their health. While delivering distressing news may be challenging, healthcare professionals must ensure that the information is conveyed with empathy, compassion, and appropriate support systems in place to help the client cope with the emotional impact.

4. What do you think about healthcare professionals disclosing information to clients against family wishes?

Answer:

In cases where there is a conflict between a patient’s wishes for information disclosure and their family’s desires, healthcare professionals should prioritize the patient’s autonomous right to receive information. Respecting patient autonomy and fostering trust are essential in healthcare. Open and honest communication can help patients make informed decisions about their care. However, healthcare professionals should make efforts to engage and involve the family in the decision-making process while always considering the best interests of the patient.

5. You see a colleague use another nurse’s password to access the medication administration system and take out a narcotic. What would you do?

Answer:

As a professional responsibility, it is important to report any observed unethical or illegal behavior that compromises patient safety and violates professional integrity. In this situation, I would immediately document and report the incident to the appropriate authorities, such as a supervisor, nurse manager, or the hospital’s ethics committee. Whistleblowing policies and procedures should be followed to ensure that the incident is appropriately addressed and necessary actions are taken to prevent further harm.

6. Your colleague’s child fell and was brought to the emergency department. She comes back up to the unit and tells you that they cleaned and debrided the wound, and she needs to change the dressings twice a day using a wet-to-dry method. You see her go into the supply system and remove the dressings and saline using a patient’s identification number. What would you do?

Answer:

In this situation, witnessing a colleague misuse a patient’s identification number to obtain supplies for personal use is unethical and potentially illegal. It compromises patient safety, violates professional standards, and breaches confidentiality. I would immediately address the issue by discussing it with my colleague privately, expressing concerns about their actions, and reminding them of the ethical and legal implications involved. Simultaneously, I would report the incident to appropriate authorities within the healthcare institution, such as a supervisor or the hospital’s ethics committee, to ensure a thorough investigation and appropriate disciplinary actions if necessary.

7. You are caring for a patient who has a terminal disease. They ask you if they are dying. Would you tell them? If yes, how? If no, what might you say?

Answer:

When a patient with a terminal disease asks about their prognosis, it is essential to engage in supportive and honest communication. Truthful disclosure respects the patient’s autonomy and allows them to make informed decisions about their care and end-of-life preferences. I would answer the patient’s question honestly, using empathetic and compassionate language. Sensitivity to the patient’s emotional state is important, as the information may be distressing. Providing appropriate support, including facilitating discussions with family or a palliative care team, can help address their concerns, fears, and emotional needs.

8. You are administering hydromorphone to a patient. The patient asks you what you are administering. Would you tell the patient about the medication?

Answer:

When a patient asks about the medication they are receiving, it is crucial to promote transparency and patient autonomy by providing them with appropriate information. I would inform the patient that the medication being administered is hydromorphone, a potent pain medication, while ensuring that the information is conveyed in a clear and understandable manner. Additionally, I would address any concerns or questions the patient might have, ensuring they feel empowered and involved in their care. Open and honest communication builds trust between healthcare professionals and patients, supporting better healthcare outcomes.

References:
(Provide relevant references according to APA style guidelines)

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