Please answer all the following questions . include the questions in the answers APA style, references, less than 20 % similarity. The textbook in ESENTIAL LEADERSHIP AND MANAGEMENT. 1-which of the fo Nursing Assignment Help

Please answer all the following questions . include the questions in the answers APA style, references, less than 20 % similarity. The textbook in ESENTIAL LEADERSHIP AND MANAGEMENT.

1-which of the following behaviors may be (1) ethical but illegal, (2) legal but unethical, (3) illegal and unethical, and (4) legal and ethical.

A. Working in a clinic that performs abortions

b. Respecting the wishes of a client suffering from ALS that he be permitted to die with dignity and not placed on “breathing machines”

c. Respecting the health surrogate’s wishes regarding termination of life support of her friend

d. Observing a coworker take out two tablets of oxycodone as ordered for pain management for his patient but keeping one for himself, administering only one tablet to the patient.

2-differentiate among the following: deontological theories, utilitarianism, and principlism.

3-what do you think about health-care professionals disclosing information to clients about a poor prognosis, even though the information may cause severe distress.

4-What do they think about health-care professionals disclosing information to clients against family wishes?

5. You see a colleague use another nurse’s password to access the medication administration system and take out a narcotic. What would you do?

6.Your colleague’s child fell and was brought to the emergency department. She comes back up to the unit and tells you that they cleaned and debrided the wound, and she needs to change the dressings twice a day using a wet to dry method. You see her go into the supply system and remove the dressings and saline using a patient’s identification number. What would you do?

7. You are caring for a patient who has a terminal disease. He asks you if he is dying. Would you tell him? If yes, how? If no, what might you say? .

8-You are administering hydromorphone to a patient. The patient asks you what you are administering. Would you tell the patient about the medication?

Expert Solution Preview

1) The behaviors described can be categorized as follows:

a) Working in a clinic that performs abortions:
This behavior can be considered legal but may be perceived as unethical by certain individuals or groups who oppose abortion.

b) Respecting the wishes of a client suffering from ALS that he be permitted to die with dignity and not placed on “breathing machines”:
Respecting the client’s wishes can be seen as both legal and ethical. It aligns with the principle of autonomy and upholding patient’s rights to make decisions about their own healthcare.

c) Respecting the health surrogate’s wishes regarding termination of life support of her friend:
Similar to the previous scenario, respecting the health surrogate’s wishes can be viewed as legal and ethical. It acknowledges the importance of patient autonomy and respects the designated surrogate’s authority to make decisions on behalf of the patient.

d) Observing a coworker take out two tablets of oxycodone as ordered for pain management for his patient but keeping one for himself, administering only one tablet to the patient:
This behavior is both illegal and unethical. Taking medication meant for a patient for personal use is a violation of legal and ethical standards. It is important to report such misconduct and ensure patient safety.

Reference:
Sullivan, E. J. (2017). Essential leadership and management in nursing (7th ed.). Elsevier.

2) Deontological theories, utilitarianism, and principlism are ethical frameworks used to guide decision-making in healthcare.

Deontological theories focus on the inherent nature of actions themselves, rather than their consequences. These theories emphasize adherence to moral principles or duties. For example, the duty-based approach of Immanuel Kant’s deontological theory states that certain actions, such as telling the truth, are inherently right, regardless of the consequences.

Utilitarianism, on the other hand, assesses the moral worth of actions based on their outcomes and the overall happiness or utility they produce. This approach seeks to maximize the greatest good for the greatest number of people. In healthcare, utilitarianism may involve making decisions that maximize overall patient well-being or benefit the majority.

Principlism is an ethical framework that combines elements from various ethical theories with key moral principles. The four commonly recognized principles of biomedical ethics are autonomy, beneficence, nonmaleficence, and justice. Principlism allows for the consideration of multiple ethical principles and their application in specific situations.

References:
Sullivan, E. J. (2017). Essential leadership and management in nursing (7th ed.). Elsevier.

3) Disclosing information about a poor prognosis to clients can be a challenging ethical dilemma for healthcare professionals. While the disclosure may cause severe distress, it is generally considered essential to provide patients with truthful and accurate information about their health condition. Open and honest communication is a fundamental aspect of patient-centered care and respecting patient autonomy. It allows patients to make informed decisions about their care, involve their families in the decision-making process if desired, and plan for the future.

However, healthcare professionals should consider the individual patient’s preferences, cultural beliefs, and emotional readiness to receive such information. They should approach the disclosure with empathy and provide appropriate emotional support, ensuring that the patient has access to counseling services if needed. Collaborating with a multidisciplinary team can effectively address the psychological distress associated with poor prognosis news.

References:
Sullivan, E. J. (2017). Essential leadership and management in nursing (7th ed.). Elsevier.

4) Disclosing information to clients against family wishes is another ethical dilemma healthcare professionals may encounter. The primary ethical principle in this situation is respect for patient autonomy. Healthcare professionals should prioritize the informed decision-making capacity of the patient and their right to control their medical information.

It is crucial to engage in open dialogue with both the patient and their family, seeking to understand and respect their concerns. However, if the patient has the decision-making capacity and does not want certain information disclosed to their family, healthcare professionals must respect the patient’s wishes as long as they are within legal boundaries.

Healthcare professionals should also consider the legal and ethical obligations to protect patient confidentiality and privacy. In situations where disclosure may be necessary to protect the patient’s safety or the safety of others, healthcare professionals should follow applicable laws and ethical guidelines regarding information sharing.

References:
Sullivan, E. J. (2017). Essential leadership and management in nursing (7th ed.). Elsevier.

5) Witnessing a colleague using another nurse’s password to access the medication administration system and take out a narcotic raises serious ethical and legal concerns. It is important to take appropriate action to ensure patient safety and uphold professional standards. Here are some steps to consider:

1. Collect evidence: Document the incident, including the date, time, individuals involved, and any additional relevant information. Take note of any potential harm caused to the patients.

2. Report the incident: Notify the appropriate person or department within your organization responsible for addressing ethical or legal violations, such as a supervisor, manager, or the hospital’s ethics committee. Follow your organization’s policies and procedures for reporting incidents.

3. Seek guidance: Consult with a trusted colleague, professional association, or legal counsel for guidance on how to proceed. They can provide advice based on the specific ethical and legal considerations in your jurisdiction.

Remember, it is essential to prioritize patient safety and maintain professional integrity. By taking appropriate action, you contribute to maintaining a culture of ethical conduct and patient-centered care.

References:
Sullivan, E. J. (2017). Essential leadership and management in nursing (7th ed.). Elsevier.

6) Observing a colleague misusing a patient’s identification number to obtain supplies raises concerns about professional ethics, patient privacy, and potential fraudulent behavior. To address this situation, here are some steps to consider:

1. Collect evidence: Document the incident, including the date, time, individuals involved, and any additional relevant information. Pay attention to any potential harm caused to the patient or any patterns of such behavior.

2. Report the incident: Notify the appropriate person or department within your organization responsible for addressing ethical or legal violations, such as a supervisor, manager, or the hospital’s ethics committee. Follow your organization’s policies and procedures for reporting incidents.

3. Preserve patient safety and privacy: If the patient’s safety is at risk, take immediate action to assess and meet their needs. Ensure that appropriate care is provided and that the patient’s confidentiality and privacy rights are protected.

4. Seek guidance: Consult with a trusted colleague, professional association, or legal counsel for guidance on how to proceed. They can provide advice based on the specific ethical and legal considerations in your jurisdiction.

By taking appropriate action, you contribute to maintaining patient safety, professional standards, and a culture of ethical conduct.

References:
Sullivan, E. J. (2017). Essential leadership and management in nursing (7th ed.). Elsevier.

7) When a patient with a terminal disease asks if they are dying, addressing this delicate situation requires empathy, sensitivity, and effective communication. The approach to disclosing such information can vary based on individual patient characteristics, beliefs, and preferences. Here are some considerations:

a) Telling the patient:
If the patient has explicitly expressed a desire to know the truth, it is generally considered ethical and respectful to provide honest and compassionate information. Healthcare professionals can begin by acknowledging the patient’s fears and concerns, while expressing their willingness to support them throughout this journey. It is vital to share information in a clear and empathetic manner, allowing the patient to process the news at their own pace.

b) Not telling the patient:
In some cases, patients may prefer not to be informed about their terminal condition, putting emphasis on maintaining hope or avoiding distress. If the patient has explicitly voiced their wish not to know, healthcare professionals should respect their autonomy while ensuring that appropriate supportive measures are in place.

It is crucial to tailor communication to each patient’s unique needs, while considering cultural, psychological, and emotional factors. Collaborating with a palliative care team may enhance the quality of communication and emotional support provided to the patient and their family.

References:
Sullivan, E. J. (2017). Essential leadership and management in nursing (7th ed.). Elsevier.

8) When administering hydromorphone to a patient, it is generally considered appropriate to inform the patient about the medication being administered. Effective communication is essential to promote patient-centered care and respect for autonomy. Here are some considerations:

a) Informing the patient:
Taking a patient-centered approach, healthcare professionals should provide information about the medication, including its name, purpose, and potential side effects. This empowers the patient to participate in their care, ask questions, and make informed decisions. Transparency and open communication contribute to building trust between patients and healthcare professionals.

b) Tailoring communication:
It is crucial to consider the patient’s individual preferences, health literacy, and emotional readiness to receive information. Some patients may desire more detailed information, while others may prefer a more simplified explanation. Healthcare professionals should assess the patient’s understanding, engage in active listening, and adapt their communication style accordingly.

c) Ensuring privacy and confidentiality:
When discussing medication-related information, healthcare professionals should prioritize patient privacy and confidentiality. Ensure that the conversation takes place in a private setting and that the patient’s information is not overheard or disclosed without the patient’s consent.

References:
Sullivan, E. J. (2017). Essential leadership and management in nursing (7th ed.). Elsevier.

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